Jacob of Urhoy (Urfa, in Turkey)
The Historian Poseidonios from Apamea (ca. 135 BC - 51 BC), was a Greek Stoic philosopher, politician, astronomer, geographer, historian, and teacher. He says: "
"The people we Greek call Syrians, they call themselves Arameans"
From: See J.G. Kidd, Posidonius (Cambridge Classical Texts and Commentaries, 1988), vol. 2, pt. 2, pp. 955-956)
Strabo (born 63 BC or 64 BC, died ca. 24 AD), a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher is mostly famous for his Geographika ("Geography")
He says: "Poseidonius conjectures that the names of these nations also are akin; for, says he, the people whom we call Syrians are by the Syrians themselves called Arameans."
(From: The Geography of Strabo, translated by Horace Leonard Jones and published in Vol. I of the Loeb Classical Library edition, 1917, Book I, Chapt. 2, 34)
Flavius Josephus (c. 37 – c. 100 AD (or CE)) was a 1st century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and royal ancestry who survived and recorded the Destruction of Jerusalem in 70 and later settled in Rome. He says: ""Aram had the Arameans, which the Greeks called Syrians.""
(From: Antiquities of the Jews, translated by William Whiston in 1737, Book I, Chapt. 6)
Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 275 – May 30, 339), was a bishop of Caesarea in Palestine and is often referred to as the father of church history because of his work in recording the history of the early Christian church. He says: ""and from Aram the Arameans, which are also called Syrians"
(From: Sebastian Brock, "Eusebius and Syriac Christianity," in Harold W. Attridge and Gohei Hata, eds., Eusebius, Christianity, and Judaism (Leiden 1992), p. 226)
Abu Al-husayn 'ali Ibn Al-husayn Al-mas'udi, born 895 in Baghdad [Iraq] and died 957 in al- Fustat [Egypt], was a historian and traveler, known as "the Herodotus of the Arabs.” He was the first Arab to combine history and scientific geography in a large-scale work. On Tur Abdin he says: "Tur Abdin is the mountain where remnants of the Aramean Syrians still survive."
(From: Michael Jan de Goeje: Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum III, Leiden 1906, 54, I)
Prof. Dietrich Hermann Hegewisch born Dec. 15, 1746 in Quakenbrück [Germany] and died April 4, 1812 in Kiel, was a prolific german historian at the University of Kiel with a wide span of interests. He says: "Do not the Syrians, as they are usually called, or the Arameans, as they in fact are termed, deserve more attention in world history than they are usually given?"
(From: D.H. Hegewisch: Die Aramäer oder Syrer; ein kleiner Beitrag zur allgemeinen Weltgeschichte, Berlinische Monatschrift, 2, 1794, p. 193)
On Page 197 he says: "The names Syria, Assyria, Mesopotamia, Babylon, etc. stem from the Greeks, who were not familiar with the true geography of these lands when the names first started to be used. Later, partly because of continuing ignorance and partly because of convenience despite having accurate knowledge, they persisted in using them since it would have required something of an effort to give up the old, familiar names and divisions of the countries and switch to the new ones, even if they were more accurate. The old, true, and single name of these lands is Aram; it is mentioned numerous times in the Bible of the Old Testament, and Greek scholars were also familiar with it and probably described the population of these areas as Arameans, though seldom, as they usually continued to use the term Syrian, which had been familiar to the Greeks."
On page 307 he says: "The Syrians or Arameans were not merely a numerous and large people, they were also a much cultivated people."
Prof. Theodor Mommsen born Nov. 30, 1817, Garding, Schleswig [now in Germany] died Nov. 1, 1903, Charlottenburg, near Berlin, was a German historian and writer, famous for his masterpiece about the History of Rome. He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1902. He says: "the history of the Aramaean or Syrian nation which occupied the east coast and extended into the interior of Asia as far as the Euphrates and Tigris"
(From: The History of Rome, written between 1854 and 1856, Leipzig, by Theodor Mommsen, Book First, Chapter One)
"the Arameans defended their nationality with the weapons of intellect as well as with their blood against all the allurements of Greek civilization and all the coercive measures of eastern and western despots, and that with an obstinacy which no Indo- Germanic people has ever equalled, and which to us who are Occidentals seems to be sometimes more, sometimes less, than human."
(ibid, Book Third, Chapter One)
Prof. Theodor Nöldeke born March 2, 1836 in Harburg near Hamburg, died December 25, 1930 in Karlsruhe, was the leading german semitic scholar, who studied at Göttingen, Vienna, Leiden and Berlin. He says: "The main body of the population of all these wide landscapes from the Mediterranean Sea to beyond the Tigris belonged to a certain nationality, that of the Arameans."
(From: Th. Nöldeke: Assyrios Syrios Syros, in Zeitschrift für klassische Philologie, Hermes 5, Berlin 1871, p. 460)
On page 461 he says: "It is well understandable that people have started to transfer the name of the country to the most important nationality and so the name 'syrian' was apprehended ethnological and was equated with 'aramaic'."
On page 468 he says: "Since the times of Alexander [the Great], if not already somewhat earlier, people have started to transfer the name of the Syrians exclusively over the prevailing in Syria nationality, and in this way this originally political-geographical term became an ethnological one that was identified with the local Arameans."
"From the time the Greeks came to have a more intimate acquaintance with Asia, they designated by the name of Syrians, the people who called themselves ´Arameans’.”
(From: Th. Nöldeke, Kurzgefasste Syrische Grammatik (Leipzig, 1880), p. XXIX)
"Regarding the name of this nation and its language is the original 'Aramean’ in essence also the only one [sic], that for the employment of the present-day scholarship as yet strongly fits.” (From: Th. Nöldeke, "Die Namen der aramäischen Nation und Sprache,” in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 25 (1871), p. 131)
Karl Eduard Sachau born 20 July 1845 and died 1930 was a German orientalist. He was 1872 professor at the University of Vienna, and in 1876, professor at the University of Berlin, where he was appointed director of the new Seminar of Oriental languages in 1887. He is especially noteworthy for his work on Syriac and other Aramaic dialects. He says: "The nation of the Arameans: This national name later, mainly in consequence of Jewish-Christian literature influences, gave way to the Greek designation Syrians."
(From: Verzeichnis der Syrischen Handschriften der königlichen Bibliothek zu Berlin von Eduard Sachau 1. Abteilung, Berlin 1899, Vorrede I)
Aramean people: Aramean people (not to be confused with ‘Armenians’) speak Aramaic, the language spoken by Abraham, Moses and Jesus. They are the indigenous people of what was called in ancient times Aram- Nahrin, in our days it is called ‘Mesopotamia’.
Some Arameans today identify themselves with “Assyrians”, because of the spiritual colonial hate generating activities of the Western missionaries and diplomats in the Middle-East in 16th and 19th centuries. Other Arameans became known as “Chaldeans”. However all of them are Arameans.
The deep rooted demonic hatred against the Aramean indigenous nation
Thanks to the noble efforts of the
Aramean Democratic Organization (ArDO) and the Aramean Maronite Shadi
Khalloul in Gush Halav in Galilee,
on 16th of September 2014 Israel recognized as the first
country in the world the Aramean nation (fake “
It would not only adorn the European countries, but also countries like Syria, Turkey, Jordan, Iran and Iraq if they would follow the noble example of Israel. Unfortunately, nothing of that has happened so far yet. On the contrary, while the ink of the decision taken on 16th of September 2014 was not dried yet, the British Newspaper “the Independent” published on 18th of September 2014 a vicious and tasteless article entitled “Israel goes back 4,000 years in 'attempt to divide and rule' its Arab minority” as a response to the courageous decision of the Israeli government to rightfully, morally and in agreement with the historical truth recognize the Arameans in Israel as distinct ethnic minority.
United Kingdom and France are the two most evil colonial countries on the face of the earth if we carefully investigate their cruel and carnivorous colonial activities.
Everywhere they set foot on the ground, they wrecked havoc. They have been responsible for the cultural, historical, social and tribal extermination of many indigenous nations worldwide, including Aramean nation. Their hatred towards the Aramean nation is beyond imagination. You can call Arameans “Arabs”, “Turks”, “Kurds”, “Palestinians” etc…, it is okay to them. However, at the moment you mention the Arameans by their real ethnical indigenous name, than this thoroughly wicked powers stand up to dismiss it as “nonsense” and “backward.”
There are also some so-called “Christian” groups (rather antichristians) in United States and Europe who nourish an unprecedented hatred toward the Aramean nation. They are in love with “Assyrianism” and are eager to designate the Arameans by that unholy name. This so-called “Christians” are happy with every designation, including “Arabs”, except the Aramean one. It is really a mystery to us where this unprecedented filthiness and demonic hatred comes from. And of course we should not forget the Wikipedia- the online illuminati source of distortions-, which has tons of entrees with blatant historical distortion of the Aramean nation. They call everything “Assyrian.”
Few comments on the article:
“Now, the Israeli decision to recognise “Aramean” as a distinct nationality in the country’s population register is fuelling the ire of Israeli Arab leaders, who accuse the government of inventing a category of peoplehood to “divide and rule” the Arab minority”
This is the world upside down! To “divide and rule” the so-called “Arab” minority? But the so-called “Arabs” are nothing but a unholy invention of the notorious France and United kingdom to promote this identity in order to detach the Islamic Arameans from their roots and wipe out any remembrance to their only and true identity which is Aramean (here and here).
The same unholy “evangelism” was applied to the Christian Arameans with invention of fake terms “Chaldeans” in the 16th century by the Catholic Church and France and “Assyrians” by United Kingdom and Anglican mission (around 1850). In our analysis of 6-9-2014 we explain the reason behind the unprecedented wickedness of France and United Kingdom to destroy the Islamic and Christians Arameans by detaching them from their roots.
We further read: “Mohammad Barakeh, an Arab member of the Knesset, ridiculed those identifying themselves as Aramean as being “a most negligible minority”. He said: “I don’t know if there are five or 10 of them.”
He added: “Instead of dealing with the distress and discrimination of all the Arab public, they try to divide us. They are playing with history. Palestinian Christians are Arab-Palestinians in every sense. The Aramean people established their kingdom in Syria in the 5th to 7th century BC. This attempt to go so far back in history just to divide us is delusional. The divide-and-rule game will not help anyone.”
Here is a confused individual talking about history where he does not understand anything about it, it is a kind of “history” developed and invented in the unholy laboratories of the colonial freemasonic/illuminati powers. First of all, the Palestinians have nothing to do with the so-called colonial illuminati invention “Arabs”, because the Palestinians are the Children of Esau (Edom) who build amongst others Petra in Jordan. To call Palestinians “Arabs” is utter travesty from historical point of view.
Secondly if there are “just few Christians calling themselves Arameans”, it only means that the unholy colonial illuminati product “Arabs” has done its work very well by means of oppression, mendacity, constraint, discrimination, exclusion, harassments and extermination! This is nothing but a complete genocide that in detail was prepared by the colonial illuminati powers.
Thirdly, who is exactly “playing with the history?” Those gullible millions in the Middle-East who have been maneuvered in this appalling situation where they will be sacrificed in a abominable bloodbath to the god of illuminati/ freemasonry to bring the man of sin, the antichrist, on the world scene, or those who careful study the recorded testimonies of their forefathers to uncover their roots?
The phrase “Palestinian Christians are Arab-Palestinians” is quite amusing. One can see clearly what the evildoers France and UK have done with the Middle-East, the masters and inventers of historical fallacies and distortions.
Let the newspaper Independent and Mr. Barakeh read the historical testimonies of the brilliant Aramean scholars from various denominations and they will discover that there is clear Aramean continuation from the time of flood until our days.
If Mr. Barakeh would do some independent historical research, he would discovery, to his utter shock and amazement, that he himself most probably has nothing to do with the so-called “Arabs”, because “…..all the Arab population at the times of Prophet Muhammad did not outnumber the inhabitants of just one Aramaean city like Damascus, Nisibis, Ctesiphon, Dura Europos, Palmyra, Homs, or Edessa” (The Aramaeans' rise will transfigure the Middle Eastern Chessboard)
Therefore, we advise Mr. Barakeh to please stop with terms like “all the Arab public”, “Arab-Palestinians”, “Palestinian Christians” and do some real and independent historical investigation, not the kind that was prepared and implemented by the colonial illuminati powers.
The “Independent” cannot get enough of willfully misleading the reader and committing historical fallacies. On 23-11-2014 they stated in an article entitled “Isis in Iraq: The trauma of the last six months has overwhelmed the remaining Christians in the country: “There are an estimated 500,000 ethnic Assyrians indigenous to northern Iraq, south-east Turkey, north-east Syria and north-west Iran. This group is so ancient that some of its members still speak Aramaic, the language of the New Testament.
The country’s other major Christian community is also Assyrian, and its Ancient Church of the East, having embraced Christianity in the first century AD, is believed to be the oldest Christian denomination in Iraq.”
Can you see here the unprecedented misinformation, immorality, obscenity and perversity wherefore United Kingdom have attained a “great” name among all the indigenous populations who suffered under their terror and humiliation? Their trademark: Confusing, dividing, inciting against one another, creating of chaos and hostility with the aim of extermination.
This kind of unholy descriptions in reference to our people is typical trash that is being spread by AINA, the international lie and hate-machine and other apostate Arameans who call themselves “Assyrians.” And "the Independent" is passing on these sewage-stories to the unwitting reader.
We now switch over from “Arabism” to “Assyrianism”, the two horrific fabrications of UK and France that are the cause of spiritual/ mental blindness, backwardness, relentless divisions and asphyxiations.
Please be informed that the overwhelming majority of the colonial Western mainstream media is being controlled by Illuminati. So before an article is published, it must be approved by higher hands, because: “NOT A SINGLE ANNOUNCEMENT WILL REACH THE PUBLIC WITHOUT OUR CONTROL” (illuminati protocols of the Elders of Zion No. 12, section 3 and 4). Therefore, do not buy in on stories like “they are unaware”, “they have been ill-informed”, “they have no bad intentions, they just don’t know.” On the contrary, they know exactly what they are doing.
As we have demonstrated in various analyses, the religion of “Assyrianism”- in particular their love for Nimrod and Samiramis and other deities – is exactly the same as the occult religion of the illuminati.
In short, the reason they promote “Assyrianism” and hate the Aramean indigenous nation:
1) It is their evil creation, the unholy creation of United Kingdom. Therefore they promote it.
3) In our analysis of 6-9-2014 we wrote “These “Assyrians” are very important to the illuminati, for they are the motor behind the unprecedented demonic campaign against the Aramean nation to safeguard their downfall. That is also the reason why the “Assyrians” are so much appreciated by the colonial illuminati powers and therefore they get a prominent place in their media”
Before invasion of Iraq in 2003, Tony Blair and George Bush the two big "buddies" of the "Assyrians"- both of them have been found guilty of war crimes by the Kuala Lumpur tribunal- made on various occasions reference to “Assyrians” and “Chaldeans” but excluded the Aramean nation. We mention few examples:
President Bush: (October 7, 2002) “The oppression of Kurds, Assyrians, Turkomans, Shi'a, Sunnis and others…”
President Bush: (March 16, 2003) “…..All the Iraqi people -- its rich mix of Sunni and Shiite Arabs, Kurds, Turkomen, Assyrians, Chaldeans,……”
President Bush: (April 28, 2003) “Whether you're Sunni or Shia or Kurd or Chaldean or Assyrian or Turkoman or Christian or Jew or Muslim …”
Tony Blair: (March 30, 2003): “I want all Iraqis - Arab, Assyrian, Kurd, Turkoman, Sunni, Shiite, Christian and all other groups…”
The Independent newspaper said nothing about these immoral and objectionable historical distortions, but is very generous to portray the decision of Israel as “immoral and creating divisions.” Filthiness and double standards beyond imagination!!!!!!
And then comes the objection of…. the catholic bishops……..
The objection of catholic bishops against the recognition of the Aramean indigenous nation was published on 22-9-2014 by the Fides news agency in an article entitled “The Catholic Bishops: the recognition of the "Aramean" nationality aims to divide the Palestinian Christians from others”
On the “concerns” of the Catholic bishops we read: “The decision of the Israeli Ministry of the Interior that Christian Palestinian Arab citizens in Israel can now change their registration in the Ministry from Arabs to "Arameans" is denounced as "an attempt to separate the Christian Palestinians from other Palestinians" by the Catholic Bishops of the Holy Land, who in a communiqué issued by the Justice and Peace Commission of the Assembly of the Catholic Ordinaries denounce the spurious and ideological motivations of the measures taken in this direction by the Government of Israel.”
This is very sad to read, because these catholic bishops in Israel themselves are Arameans (except their “advisors”) who have been brainwashed and therefore prefer to be called “Arabs.”
Furthermore, are these “Christian” leaders concerned about unity? Before shedding such huge crocodile tears, they first should investigate the horrors committed by the Catholic Church against the indigenous Aramean nation of the Middle-East.
Misusing the name of “Jesus” they created division within the Aramean nation on the cultural/ ethnical/ social / national and religious level and incited the nation against one another through which the national unity was destroyed resulting in that one and the same nation is presenting themselves under different ethnical names and with that they fly at one another’s throat.
The daughter was incited against mother, the son against father, brother against brother and village against village through which an unbridgeable and vicious hatred was implanted in their hearts that prevents any form of cooperation or unity.
And these “bishops”- whom are themselves Arameans- are now worried about “unity” because Israel has delivered a formidable punch at the unholy and objectionable colonial activities of their Church in the Middle-East since 15th century? King Salomo once said: “Excellent speech is not becoming to a fool….” (Proverbs 17:7)
Instead of applauding the decision of Israel and educating their flock about their Aramean origin, they attack it vehemently.
In addition, these spiritual leaders are most probably completely unaware of minimal fundamental biblical teachings and know nothing about history, including about “Palestinains” who are the children of Esau (Edom), the brother of Jacob. The most appropriate name for this people would be: Esauians or Edomians and definitely not “Arabs.”
Moreover, they resort to politics instead of the message of Yesuh M’siho who said: I am the Way, the Life and the Truth (John 14:6). If these bishops would look for the Truth, they would discover that they themselves are Arameans and have nothing to do with “Arabs” or others.
Needless to say, but of course these bishops are being controlled by a higher power behind them.
Furthermore, the bishops want to teach us a lesson on history as we read: “The Arabs, who live today in Greater Syria have spoken different languages over the centuries: Aramaic, Greek and Arabic. Today, we, in Israel, are Christian Palestinian Arabs. Some in the Israeli administration seem to think that separating Christian Palestinians from other Palestinians is a way to protect Christians, we say: give us back our homes, our properties, our villages that you have confiscated. Second: the best way to protect us is to keep us with our people. Third: the best protection for us is to seriously engage in walking path of peace"
They have being raised, from childhood, with this kind of falsehoods and historical distortions created by the wicked France and United Kingdom. The poor “clergy” of course know nothing about the real history of the Middle-East and are so blinded that they vehemently reject the Aramean identity which is the real identity of the Middle-east. If these are the “illiterate” and “blind” shepherds, how about their flock?
The fake term “Christian Palestinian Arabs” simply does not exist and has no any historical justification. They prefer fallacies and distortions above civilization, dignity and truth.
“give us back our homes, our properties, our villages that you have confiscated” is their complaint against Israel.
Well, how about your Church, the Catholic Church, that has confiscated the Aramean churches, destroyed our cultural heritage and implemented abominable hatred and division within our nation resulting in their downfall? All these horrors are okay, because they were carried out on behalf of “the holy father” the pope? And all this evilness is okay, because it is “Christian”, “love”, “unity”, “peace” and “respect” to bring these heretics to the “only and holy catholic mother church?” What did Yesuh M’siho say? “And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye?” (Matthew 7:3-5)
The best protection for the Arameans and non-Arameans is: To learn the historical, social and cultural truth, because truth will set you free (John 8:32). And when you socially, culturally and historically are free, than you will be able to independently think outside the box of the colonial illuminati powers and will finally discover what kind of utterly demonic powers have been playing with the Middle-East and other regions in the world.
The bishops appeal to the Arameans who follow the real history saying,” the few Christian Palestinian Arabs in Israel who support this idea of changing their "Aramean" identity" or serving in the Israeli army: "Come back to your senses" reads the communiqué "do not harm your people because of idle promises and personal egoistic gain. By adopting such a position, you do not benefit yourselves nor do you benefit Israel. Israel is in need of Christians who have heard Jesus’ teaching: 'Blessed the peace makers'. Israel does not need Christians who have deformed their identity".”
This resembles the unholy activities of the catholic missionaries among the Aramean nation who brainwashed and bribed many of them with promises/ phrases like: “Come to the true church, the catholic church”, “pope will support and protect you if you accept him as your holy father”, “we care about you”, “your church is heretic, you are following the fake path, we are the true church”, “follow us, we will help and protect you” etc.. etc.. It is the same evilness, fallacies and deceit.
In other words, if you choose for the historical truth, according to these bishops “it is egoistic and you are harming your people” and “you do not benefit yourselves nor do you benefit Israel.”
And finally these politicized and poorly educated “clergy” say: “Israel does not need Christians who have deformed their identity.” Did you catch that “Christians who have deformed their identity”?
All the brilliant historians of the various Aramean churches who affirm the Aramean identity of our people are a bunch of idiots and blind fools who know nothing about their own history?
The way these bishops vehemently reject the Aramean designation and embrace “Palestinian - Arab” fake identity is comparable with the unprecedented hatred of the apostate Arameans who call themselves “Assyrians” against their own Aramean identity.
Conclusion: Bad is good, crooked is straight, lie is truth, bitter is sweet and unholy is holy.
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Professor Dr. John Joseph.
5-7-2008: Assyria and Syria: Synonyms?
In a letter to the author (John Joseph), dated June 11, 1997, Patricia Crone wrote that she and Cook “do not argue that the Nestorians of pre-Islamic Iraq saw themselves as Assyrians or that this is what they called themselves. They called themselves Suryane, which had no greater connotation of Assyrian in their usage than it did in anyone else…. We take it for granted that they got the modern Assyrian label from the West and proceeded to reinvent themselves… Of course the Nestorians were Arameans.”
(Page 27, footnote 94)
Professor Dr. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis
The deep and hidden reason of the tyrannical oppression practiced throughout the Middle East is the imposition by France and England of pan-Arabic nationalist cliques that intend to dictatorially arabize the various peoples of the Middle East, who are – all – not Arabs
The basic fact is that all these populations are only Arabic – speaking; they are not Arabs. Their ethnic historical identity is Aramaic. Aramaeans are Semitic, but as distant from the Arabs as the Ancient Hebrews were from the Babylonians. For reasons we are going to explain, these Aramaean populations got gradually arabized, but the arabization phenomenon took place at the linguistic level only, not at the ethnic, national, cultural levels
Out of it, colonial missionaries, political agents, and diplomats made a huge lie (namely that these Aramaeans are not Aramaeans but 'Assyrians') with which they disconnected the Nestorian Aramaeans from their Aramaic identity
What is the correct national name of the Modern Aramaeans? Why are there Aramaeans, who despite the fact that they speak Aramaic, insist on calling themselves 'Assyrians'? Why other Aramaeans stick to a third name, 'Chaldaeans'? Is it proper to use the name 'Syriac' that usually describes a late form of Aramaic language and scripture (from which Arabic derived) as national name of the Aramaeans?
Contrarily to the farfetched – and well financed – inaccuracies of Simo Parpola, there is not a single element in the defunct before 2600 years Assyrian Cultural and National Heritage to resemble in anything with the genuinely Aramaean culture of today’s Aramaeans, irrespective of the appellation that they use to designate themselves, Aramaeans, Chaldaeans, Assyrians or Zulu.............
Patriarch Emmanuel III Delly
But this claim has been researched by historians, and concluded that people in middle East mostly refer to people to their region, like someone from Kirkuk, was named Kirkuki whether he was , Kurd, Turkmen or Aramean. So is the case with Assyrians or actually the “Athuris” that is how they are called in the region. That name is been used to label the Nestorian Arameans of Athur(Asur) region at the suburbs of Mosul. The term has no any relation with the ancient Assyrians and the modern Assyrians
As for the terms "Assyrians" and "Chaldaeans," which are used to describe non-Arab Christians (other than Armenians), there is absolutely no historical reference of their association with the Assyrians and Chaldaeans of ancient Mesopotamia
“The Church of the East and the Church of England: A History of the Archbishop of Canterbury's Assyrian Mission “ is the title of the book written by J.F. Coakley and published in 1992.
On page 147 Coackly reports about a dispute between Arthur Maclean, head of the Archbishop of Canterbury's Assyrian Mission from 1886 to 1891, and Hormuzed Rassam, the brother of Christian Antun (Isa) Rassam; a Chaldean family from Mosul. We read: “As he (Maclean) insisted, the ‘Syrians’ called themselves that, never ‘Assyrians’; …… to apply the name ‘Assyrians’ to these Eastern Syrian Christians appears to me either an error, or else pedantry. There is really as far as I know no proof that they had any connection with the Old Assyrians. ....... ..... Why should we invent a name when we have such a very convenient one, used for centuries, at our hand? I can understand that one living close to the ruins of Nineve should have a fit enthusiasm of Old Assyria; but is it common sense to cast aside a name used by the people themselves, and to invent another for them of very doubtful applicability? “