The Historian Poseidonios from Apamea (ca. 135 BC - 51 BC), was a Greek Stoic philosopher, politician, astronomer, geographer, historian, and teacher. He says: "
"The people we Greek call Syrians, they call themselves Arameans"
From: See J.G. Kidd, Posidonius (Cambridge Classical Texts and Commentaries, 1988), vol. 2, pt. 2, pp. 955-956)
Strabo (born 63 BC or 64 BC, died ca. 24 AD), a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher is mostly famous for his Geographika ("Geography")
He says: "Poseidonius conjectures that the names of these nations also are akin; for, says he, the people whom we call Syrians are by the Syrians themselves called Arameans."
(From: The Geography of Strabo, translated by Horace Leonard Jones and published in Vol. I of the Loeb Classical Library edition, 1917, Book I, Chapt. 2, 34)
Flavius Josephus (c. 37 – c. 100 AD (or CE)) was a 1st century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and royal ancestry who survived and recorded the Destruction of Jerusalem in 70 and later settled in Rome. He says: ""Aram had the Arameans, which the Greeks called Syrians.""
(From: Antiquities of the Jews, translated by William Whiston in 1737, Book I, Chapt. 6)
Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 275 – May 30, 339), was a bishop of Caesarea in Palestine and is often referred to as the father of church history because of his work in recording the history of the early Christian church. He says: ""and from Aram the Arameans, which are also called Syrians"
(From: Sebastian Brock, "Eusebius and Syriac Christianity," in Harold W. Attridge and Gohei Hata, eds., Eusebius, Christianity, and Judaism (Leiden 1992), p. 226)
Abu Al-husayn 'ali Ibn Al-husayn Al-mas'udi, born 895 in Baghdad [Iraq] and died 957 in al- Fustat [Egypt], was a historian and traveler, known as "the Herodotus of the Arabs.” He was the first Arab to combine history and scientific geography in a large-scale work. On Tur Abdin he says: "Tur Abdin is the mountain where remnants of the Aramean Syrians still survive."
(From: Michael Jan de Goeje: Bibliotheca Geographorum Arabicorum III, Leiden 1906, 54, I)
Prof. Dietrich Hermann Hegewisch born Dec. 15, 1746 in Quakenbrück [Germany] and died April 4, 1812 in Kiel, was a prolific german historian at the University of Kiel with a wide span of interests. He says: "Do not the Syrians, as they are usually called, or the Arameans, as they in fact are termed, deserve more attention in world history than they are usually given?"
(From: D.H. Hegewisch: Die Aramäer oder Syrer; ein kleiner Beitrag zur allgemeinen Weltgeschichte, Berlinische Monatschrift, 2, 1794, p. 193)
On Page 197 he says: "The names Syria, Assyria, Mesopotamia, Babylon, etc. stem from the Greeks, who were not familiar with the true geography of these lands when the names first started to be used. Later, partly because of continuing ignorance and partly because of convenience despite having accurate knowledge, they persisted in using them since it would have required something of an effort to give up the old, familiar names and divisions of the countries and switch to the new ones, even if they were more accurate. The old, true, and single name of these lands is Aram; it is mentioned numerous times in the Bible of the Old Testament, and Greek scholars were also familiar with it and probably described the population of these areas as Arameans, though seldom, as they usually continued to use the term Syrian, which had been familiar to the Greeks."
On page 307 he says: "The Syrians or Arameans were not merely a numerous and large people, they were also a much cultivated people."
Prof. Theodor Mommsen born Nov. 30, 1817, Garding, Schleswig [now in Germany] died Nov. 1, 1903, Charlottenburg, near Berlin, was a German historian and writer, famous for his masterpiece about the History of Rome. He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1902. He says: "the history of the Aramaean or Syrian nation which occupied the east coast and extended into the interior of Asia as far as the Euphrates and Tigris"
(From: The History of Rome, written between 1854 and 1856, Leipzig, by Theodor Mommsen, Book First, Chapter One)
"the Arameans defended their nationality with the weapons of intellect as well as with their blood against all the allurements of Greek civilization and all the coercive measures of eastern and western despots, and that with an obstinacy which no Indo- Germanic people has ever equalled, and which to us who are Occidentals seems to be sometimes more, sometimes less, than human."
(ibid, Book Third, Chapter One)
Prof. Theodor Nöldeke born March 2, 1836 in Harburg near Hamburg, died December 25, 1930 in Karlsruhe, was the leading german semitic scholar, who studied at Göttingen, Vienna, Leiden and Berlin. He says: "The main body of the population of all these wide landscapes from the Mediterranean Sea to beyond the Tigris belonged to a certain nationality, that of the Arameans."
(From: Th. Nöldeke: Assyrios Syrios Syros, in Zeitschrift für klassische Philologie, Hermes 5, Berlin 1871, p. 460)
On page 461 he says: "It is well understandable that people have started to transfer the name of the country to the most important nationality and so the name 'syrian' was apprehended ethnological and was equated with 'aramaic'."
On page 468 he says: "Since the times of Alexander [the Great], if not already somewhat earlier, people have started to transfer the name of the Syrians exclusively over the prevailing in Syria nationality, and in this way this originally political-geographical term became an ethnological one that was identified with the local Arameans."
"From the time the Greeks came to have a more intimate acquaintance with Asia, they designated by the name of Syrians, the people who called themselves ´Arameans’.” (From: Th. Nöldeke, Kurzgefasste Syrische Grammatik (Leipzig, 1880), p. XXIX)
"Regarding the name of this nation and its language is the original 'Aramean’ in essence also the only one [sic], that for the employment of the present-day scholarship as yet strongly fits.” (From: Th. Nöldeke, "Die Namen der aramäischen Nation und Sprache,” in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 25 (1871), p. 131)
Karl Eduard Sachau born 20 July 1845 and died 1930 was a German orientalist. He was 1872 professor at the University of Vienna, and in 1876, professor at the University of Berlin, where he was appointed director of the new Seminar of Oriental languages in 1887. He is especially noteworthy for his work on Syriac and other Aramaic dialects. He says: "The nation of the Arameans: This national name later, mainly in consequence of Jewish-Christian literature influences, gave way to the Greek designation Syrians."
(From: Verzeichnis der Syrischen Handschriften der königlichen Bibliothek zu Berlin von Eduard Sachau 1. Abteilung, Berlin 1899, Vorrede I)
Aramean people: Aramean people (not to be confused with ‘Armenians’) speak Aramaic, the language spoken by Abraham, Moses and Jesus. They are the indigenous people of what was called in ancient times Aram- Nahrin, in our days it is called ‘Mesopotamia’.
Some Arameans today identify themselves with “Assyrians”, because of the spiritual colonial hate generating activities of the Western missionaries and diplomats in the Middle-East in 16th and 19th centuries. Other Arameans became known as “Chaldeans”. However all of them are Arameans.
Syriacs, "Assyrians" and "Chaldaeans" are all Aramaeans
By Prof. Dr. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis, Orientalist
Syrians, Syriacs, ‘Assyrians’, ‘Chaldaeans’ or Aramaeans?
What is the correct national name of the Modern Aramaeans? Why are there Aramaeans, who despite the fact that they speak Aramaic, insist on calling themselves 'Assyrians'? Why other Aramaeans stick to a third name, 'Chaldaeans'? Is it proper to use the name 'Syriac' that usually describes a late form of Aramaic language and scripture (from which Arabic derived) as national name of the Aramaeans? What is the difference between the Syriacs and the Syrians? And what is the relationship of the Syriacs and the Syrians with the modern 'Assyrians' and the Ancient Assyrians? Are the terms Assyria and Syria identical?
Before tackling key issues of the Middle Eastern puzzle, one is constrained to address all these questions. It will take a series of articles to define terms and make clarifications that are necessary to anyone concerned with, involved or just living in the Middle East. We will specify how some terms were kept alive throughout millennia, and how other terms have been recently revitalized by colonial academia seeking political impact. Before all this, it is necessary to remind everyone that it has been very common throughout History for a people, for a 'nation', to be known to most of the surrounding peoples and countries, or in modern times to the rest of the world, through a name attributed to the people / nation in question by another people. This event does not minimize in any dimension the radiation of that people's culture and civilization. It matters not! At least, it looks like that…..
We all know Finland; few heard that in Finnish Finland is called Suomi! We all say 'Greece'; few are aware that in Greek Greece is called Hellas or Hellada (d to be pronounced as th- in 'there')!
We all name the country of the Nile Delta 'Egypt'; but very few are familiar with the fact that the Egyptians call their own country 'Masr'! And whereas many have learned that the word 'Egypt' originates from the Ancient Greek term 'Aigyptos', only specialists have knowledge of the Ancient Egyptian etymology of the Ancient Greek name (from the term Ha Ka Ptah, which means 'the Abode of the 'Soul' of Ptah', an Ancient Egyptian God localized at Memphis). Not a single Modern Egyptian has a clue about the Assyrian – Babylonian origin of the Arabic name 'Masr' of Egypt; yet for thousands of years the terms Musur and Mat Masri were the usual 'international' appellations of Egypt (since Assyrian – Babylonian was the international language from around 2000 down to 400 BCE)! At those days, the Ancient Egyptians called their country 'Kemet', the 'black one', because of the Nile mud colour which is due to the geological specificities of the Abyssinian silt that is transported by the Blue Nile and the Nile's affluent Atbarah all the way down to the Mediterranean!
Basic Dictionary of Aramaean related appellations
The real name of the people whose History spans over 3200 years. They were first mentioned in the Annals of the Assyrian Emperor Tiglath-pileser I. As Semitic people, the Aramaeans are closer to the Hebrews and the Phoenicians (North-Western Semitic languages) than to the Assyrians and the Babylonians (Eastern Semitic languages).
Along with the Babylonians, they are the descendants of the Accadians, the earliest Semites who settled around Agade (Accad) and prevailed over the Sumerians, forming a large empire under Sarrukin (Sargon I) and Naram Sin around the middle of the 3rd millennium BCE. Contrarily to the Babylonians, the Assyrians had a policy of national - ethnic purity, and did not intermingle with the Aramaeans, whom they pushed away to the West (today's Western Syria) and to the Mesopotamian South (Babylonia). At the moments of its greatest power, under the Sargonids (722 – 609), Assyria controlled almost all the then known world, but the Assyrians were a tiny and ethnically pure minority within their Empire. With the collapse of Assyria (614 – 612 – 609 BCE), Assyrian ceased to be written and spoken, and no Assyrians were found anywhere in the Middle East. According to a new interpretation that gets momentum, they constituted part of the migrations from the Caucasus area to Europe (Cimmerians).
The land belonged, as the people and the capital city did, to the Supreme God Assur, usually viewed as the Only God within monotheistic context. Assyria corresponds geographically to modern Northern Iraq, Eastern Syria, and parts of SE Turkey: this was the Assyrian nucleus, the area that was populated by Assyrians from 2150 to 620-610 BCE. When Assyria subdued the Neo-Hittites, the Urartus, the Phoenicians, the Babylonians, the Medes and other peoples in Iran, the Elamites, the Israelites and the Egyptians, Assyria – center was a small, central, part of the Assyrian Empire.
Named 'Kaldu' in Assyrian – Babylonian texts, they are one of the Aramaean peoples. They intermingled extensively with the Babylonians, who finally - in later times - got assimilated with them, and were even called 'Chaldaeans' – mistakenly.
The modern scholarly term is formed in order to provide the corresponding term of the Ancient Greek name 'Syros' and in sheer distinction from the Syrians. Within Ancient Greek literary context, 'Syros' is the inhabitant of 'Syria', and this was the usual way for the Greeks to call the Aramaeans.
Contrarily, Syrians are the inhabitants of the modern state of Syria, who speak Arabic in their majority, because of the linguistic arabization that followed the gradual process of islamization.
The geographic term in Ancient Greek exists as shortening ('apokope') of the term 'Assyria'. It exists in Ancient Greek only after Assyria ceased to exist (609 BCE). It does not correspond to the term 'Assyria' in any sense. 'Syria' relates to the former Assyrian Imperial lands in the West of Mesopotamia up to the Phoenician Mediterranean coast. After being a mere geographical term that did not relate to the Mesopotamian Center – land Assyria, Syria became the Greek name of the Hellenistic kingdom that had its capital at Antioch (Antakya in Turkey). Syria as geographical term gave birth to the term 'Syros' for the native inhabitants of 'Syria' that happened to be the Aramaeans.
Patriarch Emmanuel Delly of the Chaldean Church of Babylon in Iraq affirms the Aramean origin of the Iraqi Christians
Arameans of Syria: http://www.aramnahrin.org/English/Arameans_Of_Syria.htm
Arameans of Iraq: http://www.aramnahrin.org/English/iraqichristians.htm
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Jacob of Urhoy (Urfa, in Turkey)
Professor Dr. John Joseph.
5-7-2008: Assyria and Syria: Synonyms?
In a letter to the author (John Joseph), dated June 11, 1997, Patricia Crone wrote that she and Cook “do not argue that the Nestorians of pre-Islamic Iraq saw themselves as Assyrians or that this is what they called themselves. They called themselves Suryane, which had no greater connotation of Assyrian in their usage than it did in anyone else…. We take it for granted that they got the modern Assyrian label from the West and proceeded to reinvent themselves… Of course the Nestorians were Arameans.”
(Page 27, footnote 94)
Professor Dr. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis
The deep and hidden reason of the tyrannical oppression practiced throughout the Middle East is the imposition by France and England of pan-Arabic nationalist cliques that intend to dictatorially arabize the various peoples of the Middle East, who are – all – not Arabs
The basic fact is that all these populations are only Arabic – speaking; they are not Arabs. Their ethnic historical identity is Aramaic. Aramaeans are Semitic, but as distant from the Arabs as the Ancient Hebrews were from the Babylonians. For reasons we are going to explain, these Aramaean populations got gradually arabized, but the arabization phenomenon took place at the linguistic level only, not at the ethnic, national, cultural levels
Out of it, colonial missionaries, political agents, and diplomats made a huge lie (namely that these Aramaeans are not Aramaeans but 'Assyrians') with which they disconnected the Nestorian Aramaeans from their Aramaic identity
What is the correct national name of the Modern Aramaeans? Why are there Aramaeans, who despite the fact that they speak Aramaic, insist on calling themselves 'Assyrians'? Why other Aramaeans stick to a third name, 'Chaldaeans'? Is it proper to use the name 'Syriac' that usually describes a late form of Aramaic language and scripture (from which Arabic derived) as national name of the Aramaeans?
Contrarily to the farfetched – and well financed – inaccuracies of Simo Parpola, there is not a single element in the defunct before 2600 years Assyrian Cultural and National Heritage to resemble in anything with the genuinely Aramaean culture of today’s Aramaeans, irrespective of the appellation that they use to designate themselves, Aramaeans, Chaldaeans, Assyrians or Zulu.............
Patriarch Emmanuel III Delly
But this claim has been researched by historians, and concluded that people in middle East mostly refer to people to their region, like someone from Kirkuk, was named Kirkuki whether he was , Kurd, Turkmen or Aramean. So is the case with Assyrians or actually the “Athuris” that is how they are called in the region. That name is been used to label the Nestorian Arameans of Athur(Asur) region at the suburbs of Mosul. The term has no any relation with the ancient Assyrians and the modern Assyrians
As for the terms "Assyrians" and "Chaldaeans," which are used to describe non-Arab Christians (other than Armenians), there is absolutely no historical reference of their association with the Assyrians and Chaldaeans of ancient Mesopotamia
“The Church of the East and the Church of England: A History of the Archbishop of Canterbury's Assyrian Mission “ is the title of the book written by J.F. Coakley and published in 1992.
On page 147 Coackly reports about a dispute between Arthur Maclean, head of the Archbishop of Canterbury's Assyrian Mission from 1886 to 1891, and Hormuzed Rassam, the brother of Christian Antun (Isa) Rassam; a Chaldean family from Mosul. We read: “As he (Maclean) insisted, the ‘Syrians’ called themselves that, never ‘Assyrians’; …… to apply the name ‘Assyrians’ to these Eastern Syrian Christians appears to me either an error, or else pedantry. There is really as far as I know no proof that they had any connection with the Old Assyrians. ....... ..... Why should we invent a name when we have such a very convenient one, used for centuries, at our hand? I can understand that one living close to the ruins of Nineve should have a fit enthusiasm of Old Assyria; but is it common sense to cast aside a name used by the people themselves, and to invent another for them of very doubtful applicability? “