Iraq, Syria and Lebanon are the only
countries where the Arameans and non-Arameans can practice their religion in freedom.
Iraq has already been destroyed by the Western colonial powers,
Syria is in the process of destructions, what remains is Lebanon.
of southeastern of Turkey and north of Syria, roughly speaking the
area of Paddan-Aram, is being considered as the cradle of the Aramean
more on this.....)
============Arameans of Syria===============
It is estimated
that there are around 2.0 million Aramean and non-Aramean Christians in
Syria. Below we will provide our beloved reader with some background
information on the various Aramean denominations present in Syria.
At the early beginning of
Christianity, the Aramean nation was geographically termed as West- Arameans
and East-Arameans. Roughly
speaking, river the Euphrates was de border. The Arameans living Eastern of
Euphrates, the Persian Empire, were called “East- Arameans” or “East-
Syrians”; thus "Nestorians" who later became known as “Chaldeans” (1553) and
again later as “Assyrians” (19th century).
living Western of Euphrates, the Roman Empire, were called “West- Arameans”
or “West- Syrians” or in short just “Syrians”. And sometimes both the East-
as well as the West- Arameans are called “Syrians”; if not specifically
indicated! In Syria the following Aramean denominations are present:
Irrespective the current religious
designations such as "Assyrian" or "Chaldean" , all the ancient scholars/
church fathers of these churches testify of their
church fathers/ scholars had access to the original sources and many of
them have excelled in their wisdom and knowledge
in comparison with their contemporaries and enlightened the world of their
time, not only with theological knowledge but also with the regular science.
The works of some of these famous scholars are still taught/ studied at
renowned universities worldwide
beginning of the Western colonial meddling and the downfall of the Aramean
In the 16th century,
colonial powers started to interfere with the Middle-East and in particular
to create divisions within the Aramean nation and incite them against one
unimaginable methods were employed to incite the Arameans against one
another on the national as well as on the religious level. To explain this,
below we present to you some events as observed by the American Presbyterian
Rev. Justin Perkins who visited the East- Aramean Nestorians of Urmia in
In the report of Perkins,
who lived for 8 years in Persia among the East- Aramean Nestorians,
we read about the activities of Vatican among the Aramnean
measure will be left untried by them, for leading away the
Nestorians from the religion of their fathers and subjecting them to
Papal control. A few years ago, a Jesuit
offered to the Nestorian Patriarch $10.000, on condition that he
would acknowledge allegiance to the Pope; to whom the
patriarch replied, in the emphatic language of Peter to Simon Magus,
"Thy money perish with thee."(Acts 8:20) (Justin Perkings, A Residence Of Eight Years In Persia Among The Nestorian
Christians, 1843, page. 23).
On page 278 he mentions
more examples, saying: "The
Nestorians often relate the particulars of their past conflicts with
Papists,-particularly the career of the last one who has visited
them on this side of the Koordish mountains. His first attempt -
daring one- was to bribe the Nestorian
Patriarch. He went directly to his residence, in the
Koordish mountains, and as a fully empowered legate, promised him,
as I have elsewhere stated, four thousand tomans, ( $ 10,000,)
on condition that he would declare himself and
his people subjects of the Pope.
mercenary motives ineffectual to accomplish his object, the Jesuit next
appealed to the ambition of the Patriarch, telling him that should he become
allied to Rome, he would be exalted to be the
Pope's lieutenant in all the East. "Tell your master," said the
Patriarch, "that I shall never become a Catholic;
and should you even induce my whole people, to the last man, to do so, I
would sooner become a Dervish, or a Koordish Moollah, than degrade myself by
alliance with the Pope.
Patriarch inflexible, the Romish emissary next tried
his artifices on the people of this province. A prince, a brother
of Abbas Meerza, was then governor of Oroomiah, and had in his employ an old
French lady in the capacity of an instructress of European languages. This
old lady had acquired a measure of influence with her royal pupil,
and the Jesuit found it very convenient to make her
his coadjutor. When therefore the Nestorians spurned the rites of
Rome as urged upon them by the Papal legate, the old lady, at his
instigation, was accustomed to petition the prince
to coerce them to submit to the 'Jesuit's dictation. This system
was pursued, until the Nestorians were on the point of rising in determined
resistance, and the prince was thus deterred from his oppression.
In some instances, the Papal
emissary entered Nestorian churches, declared them
property of the Pope, and hung their walls
with images and pictures, which the Nestorians as often indignantly tore
down and destroyed. In one case, the Jesuit paid a yet dearer price for his
temerity than the loss of his" gods."
church in Geog-tapa, he commenced adorning it witb Romish tapestry, when Mar
Elias, the venerable Nestorian bishop resident in that village, came into
his church and ordered the intruder to desist. The
Jesuit told the bishop that the church was not his, but the Pope's, and in
the name of "his holiness," commanded Mar Elias to go out. The
worthy Nestorian prelate, though aware that a bishop must be" no striker,"
yet regarding the emergency such as to justify an exception, took the Jesuit
in hand, and gave him such a corporeal castigation, that he was glad to to
escape with broken images and torn pictures; and this was the last attempt
to establish the reign of Popery at Oroomiah before our arrival. Since that
period, similar efforts have been renewed, but hitherto with as little
success, as we shall have occasion to notice, in subsequent chapters. "
mentioned above are written down by a Protestant. And
most probably Mr. Perkins was very well pleased to be informed about
and to be witness of such
events in order to discredit the other party. The Protestants however have
availed themselves of such nasty methods as well and continue to do so until today.
This kind of unholy and extremely harmful technology
unfortunately was employed to not only brainwash, blackmail, bribe, and
persecute the East- Aramean Nestorians, but also other Aramean churches
like the West- Aramean Syrian orthodox and West- Aramean Melkite Greek Orthodox
As a result of this kind of unholy and nasty "evangelizing", the following Aramean Catholic groups were created:
Aramean Syrian Catholic Church (1662)
Aramean Melkite Greek Catholic Church (1724)
Aramean Syrian Maronite Catholic Church (1182)
Aramean "Nestorian" Chaldean Church of Babylon (1553)
In addition to
that, the majority of Catholics in the Western world are
deliberately being kept blind and this important information withheld from
them on the unholy and nasty methods that have been employed on their behalf
to divide, incite against one another and finally exterminate other nations.
For this reason, this faithful Western Christian Catholics have all the
rights to be informed about what has been done to other nations in their
behalf and with their money.
The majority of
Catholic schools, Seminars and Universities withhold deliberately students of
this unsavory events taken place in the past. On the contrary, in these
institutions, the "good works" of missionaries are emphasized on the fact
that these "lost sheep" have come back to the "only holy Catholic Church"
and that these "Unites" should be offered aid and assistance. They rather
would prefer to bring back "the rest of the lost sheep" to the "only
truthfully holy Catholic Church".
And the madness
of all this is that this kind of blackmail, bribe, persecutions, brainwash
and sorcery is placed under the umbrella of "Christianity", while in
reality, it totally has nothing to do with Christian faith as explained in
the Bible. And this kind of evilness is continued until our days and is the
cause of the misery our people is facing in the Middle-East and has resulted
in their Diaspora.
West- Aramean Syrian Orthodox
Church of Antioch.
Patriarch: Ignatius Afrem II Karim. Residence in Damascus,
This Church was the first Church established outside
Israel and is the mother of all the Syrian Churches. Unfortunately
this church has also immensely been terrorized by the Western
Christianity, in particular the Catholic Church. In the Western
literature you will frequently come across the heretical terms "Jacobite
Church" and " Monofysite Church" with which the Syrian Orthodox Church
of Antioch is being demonized.
Patriarch: Joseph Younan. Residence in Beirut,
The Syrian Catholic
Church was split off from the Syrian Orthodox Church in the 17th
century. On this separation,
Sebastien de Courtois writes:
" The first [Syrian]
Catholic Patriarch had been consecrated in Aleppo in 1662 with
French help through the
mediation of Ambassador Francois Picquet (page 33)…. .. which
was encouraged by
French diplomats present in Aleppo at that time. The
the separation in the hope of one day uniting the Eastern
Churches with that of Rome
(XiX).. The Catholic mission activities were strongly
supported by French Ministry of Foreign Affairs policy, which had
been reinforced in the region by creation in 1856 of a
vice-consulate in Diyarbekir at the request of the Vatican(page. 36).
West- Aramean Melkite Greek Orthodox
Patriarch: John Yazigi. Residence in Damascus, Syria.
The West- Aramean Melkite
Greek (Rum) Orthodox Church was established after the Council of Chalcedon
held from 12 October - 1 November 451 AD. The Council was organized
by the Pope and the Byzantine / Roman Emperor.
The Syrian Orthodox
Church, the Armenian Orthodox Church and the Coptic Orthodox Church
rejected Chalcedon. That is why these Churches are being called "
Anti - Chalcedonian Churches".
The Arameans who did
accept the decisions made in Chalcedon became allies of Byzantine
/Roman Emperor and implemented in later times (from 11th century on)
the Byzantine liturgical rite. Hence the name "Greek Orthodox
These Arameans became
known as " Melkites"; this term is derived from the Aramaic word "Malko",
that means " King/ Emperor"; thus those who went along with the
king/emperor, his followers. This Church is sometimes also called "
Antiochian Orthodox Church".
The term "Greek" is only
ecclesial term, not ethical one.
In the Middle-East,
sometimes also the term " Rum" is being used in reference to these
Churches, that is abbreviation of " Rumoyee" a reference to
Byzantine Orthodox rite.
The on 18th of July 2012 killed Syrian minister of defense, general
Dawoud Raja, was a West- Aramean Melkite Greek Orthodox.
West- Aramean Melkite Greek Catholic
Patriarch: Joseph Absi. Residence in Damascus,
Thanks to the tireless
efforts of Vatican, as explained above, to divide, to weaken and
finally finish off, the West- Aramean Melkite Greek Orthodox Church
was split off in 1724 and consequently the Melkite Greek Catholic
Church was established.
There is no one Catholic
Syrian church established without blackmail, bribe and brainwashing
(Needless to says of course, however, this has nothing to do with
West- Aramean Syrian Maronite Catholic
Bechara Boutros al-Rahi . Residence in Bkerke,
This Church was named
after the Aramean ascetic St. Maron and was established in 410 AD.
The Aramean Maronites are subjected to the pope since 1182 AD. The
Aramean Maronites are in terms of numbers, the biggest Aramean
East- Aramean "Nestorian"
Apostolic Assyrian Catholic Church of the East.
Patriarch: Gewargis Sliwa.
Chicago, United States.
A.D. the East- Arameans were connected with the ecclesiastical seat
of the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch. However for reasons of
persecutions, geography and politics, during the synod of 424 the
East- Arameans decided to take independent position towards Antioch
and from then on they themselves took care for ecclesiastical
Aramean Church of Seleucia- Ctesiphon became strong and dedicated
missionary church that enlightened many nations with the message of
Jesus Christ. The
church produced spiritual giants who passionately spread the torch
of Christianity. One of them is Patriarch Timothy I from eight century.
Professor Sebastian Brock writes on page 194, Volume II, of Hidden
Pearl this about Timothy I: "The key figure
of the Eight- Century Persian Church was their extraordinary
Patriarch Timothy I, who was not only a fine scholar of gentle
temperament whose defense of the Christian faith earned him the
respect of the Abbasid caliph with whom he debated, but who was also
passionate supporter of Christian evangelism. In 781 Timothy could
write to a Maronite correspondent that:
the king of the Turks, with
nearly all (the inhabitants of) his country, has left his ancient
idolatry and has become Christian, and he has requested us in his
letters to create Metropolitan for his country, and this we have
course was not happy with the activities of this church and tried in
many ways to destroy the church by means of persecutions, massacres,
implementation of fake teachings, fake identities etc.. etc..
deathblow that effectuated the downfall of this, once majestic
church, was interference of colonial powers and in particular
the United Kingdom and diffusion and
implementation of colonial fake name "Assyrians" on religious,
national, academic, social and cultural level through which the rich
glorious history of this church was destroyed. And with that Satan
achieved his goal and finalized the downfall of the East- Aramean church
of Seleucia- Ctesiphon.
Western- Aramean or Eastern- Aramean, one gets tears in the eyes and
our heart is burning of what satan has done to this magnificent Church
and degraded the church to the present hopeless state where even the
colonial name "Assyrian" has been added to the name of the Church.
There is a
Aramaic saying from Tur Abdin that sounds like this:
"The foundation laid by Lions has been
turned into chaos by foxes"
In the course of time the East- Aramean church of Seleucia-
Ctesiphon became known under various name, namely:
Church of Persia"
East- Syrian Church".
Church of the East" and more recently (since 1976) as:
Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East"
The term "Catholic" has
no relation with Rome. It means something like " General/
From this Church
The Chaldean Catholic
Church of Babylon in 1553 AD.
The Ancient Church of the
East since 1968.
East- Aramean "Nestorian"Ancient
Church of the East.
Patriarch: Addai II. Residence in
The Ancient Church of the East
was established in 1968 by the East- Aramean "Nestorian" bishop Toma
Darmo. The reason had to do with the tradition of patriarchal
succession within the East- Syrian Church of Seleucia- Ctesiphon and with decisions
taken during a synod.
Within the East-Aramean
nation a tradition was crept in whereby succession of Patriarch
took place within the same family. And this caused church
problems, amongst others the split off in 1968.
The Ancient Church of the
East is sometimes also referred to as " Assyrian orthodoxe Church".
"Orthodox", because the church rejects the teaching of Nestorios.
The Ancient Church of the East is independent Church.
East- Aramean "Nestorian" Chaldean
Church of Babylon.
Raphaël I Sako.
Residence in Bagdad, Iraq.
The Chaldean " Nestorian"
Church of Babylon was established in 1553 following the activities
of the Catholic missionaries among the East- Aramean "Nestorians".
The Chaldeans are subjected to the Pope of Rome.
The East- Aramean "
Chaldeans", the west-Aramean Syrian Maronites, the West-Aramean
Syrian Catholics and the West- Aramean Syrian Melkite Catholics are
called "Unites" in the Catholic literature, that means something
like " Those who came back to the True Catholic Mother Church".
Of course they will never say a word about the way these churches
Indirectly of course this
implies that the rest which has not joined the "true Catholic
Church" is heretic. Beloved reader, please do not be fooled by words
like " Christian cooperation", " Christian unity",
"ecumenism" and other terms that should give the reader the feeling
as if talking or discussing about these words they are very serious
about the Christian cause, while in reality it is not.
The antichrist will also
use these "nice" terms to unify "Christianity" to accept him.
Without acceptance of antichrist by the majority of "Christianity",
he will not be able to start his work on this world. Those among
Christians who refuse and revolt against him will be labeled as
"antichristians" and killed by the antichrist.
The abhorrent demonic
hatred injected in the hearts of Aramean Catholics prevents any kind
of cooperation. To the Aramean Catholics the Vatican is above
everything whereby Jesus Christ totally is not of interest. These are the fruits
of the way these churches came into being.
to the Aramean Orthodox and East- Arameans, that is to say:
The Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch, The
Syrian Melkite Greek orthodox Church, The Ancient Church of the East and The
Assyrian Apostolic Catholic Church of the East,is this one:
From the very
beginning of Christianity until today you constantly
are flying at each other, whereby you have put aside Jesus Christ. You think
that it is okay and nobody cares about what you are doing? And that the Lord
God can't see your quarrel whereby you all have created your own private
kingdoms and don't care about the real King, namely Jesus Christ? The God YAHWEH, the God of Abraham, Isaac
and Jacob says, "Can any hide
himself in secret places that I shall not see him? saith the Lord. Do not I
fill heaven and earth? saith the Lord" (Jeremiah 23:24)
All this is okay, nothing to worry about?
How can you complain that you are being persecuted, killed, your churches
blown up, burned, your sons killed, your daughters and wives dishonored and
assumed by strangers while you have completely put aside Christ Jesus, the Holy and Almighty God of Abraham Isaac and Jacob?
Almighty God YAHWEH, Gloria to His Holy Name, the God of Abraham Isaac and
Behold, the Lord’s hand is not shortened,
that it cannot save; neither his ear heavy, that it cannot hear: But your iniquities have
separated between you
and your God, and your sins have hid [his] face from you,
that he will not hear (Isaiah 59:1-2)
2.Shameless nation, come to your senses
2 before you are driven away like chaff blown by the wind, before the
burning anger of the LORD comes upon you, before the day when he shows his
3."However, if my people, who are called by my name, will
humble themselves, pray, search for me, and
turn from their evil ways, then I will hear their prayer from
heaven, forgive their sins,
and heal their country." (2 Chronicle 7:14)
It was because
of our iniquities that the horrible jesus of the West was able to
fragmentize us, to diffuse fake names within our nation, to destroy our heritage and faith and to cause our
into Diaspora. No, don't blame others for this and other misfortunes. We are
only and exclusively the guilty ones, and no one else. We are responsible
for what is happening to us! The Lord God had blessed
the Arameans of Aram-Nahrin to be the first nation to accept Christ Jesus
and together with the apostles of the Lord Jesus and the converted Jews they
established the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch. What is left of the
original glorious church of Antioch? Nothing, completely destroyed because of internal
quarrel and centuries old hatred and imputations.
to the Aramean Catholics, that is to say:
The Syrian Catholic Church, The Syrian Melkite
Catholic Church, The Syrian Chaldean Catholic Church, The Syrian Maronite
Catholic Church , is this one:
You may call
yourself whatever you want to, but please do not lose your senses. There are
thousands Western Catholics who refuse to be manipulated by the Vatican.
They are Catholics, but they take independent position, they read and study
the Bible on daily basis and try to dedicate themselves to Jesus Christ.
These are the true Christian Catholics.
You as Aramean
Catholics will definitely not go to the hell if you set yourself a bit free
from Vatican and take more independent position. And please stop immediately
to be used as remote control. The salvation of your soul does not come
from Vatican, but from Jesus Christ. The Bible says:
I have espoused you to one husband, that I may present [you] [as] a chaste
virgin to Christ" (2 Corinthians 11:2). Therefore, please put
Jesus Christ on the first place and read the Bible in which He reveals
For those among
the Aramean Catholics who want to know more about the covenant they have
made, we refer to a top specialist on this field, Mr. William (Bill) Schnoebelen
who has produced a DVD on this matter:
Appeal to all the Aramean denominations
Please have a detailed look at the decadent
behavior of your children, men and women in Diaspora. No sense of shame!
would think that when a person has escaped war, bloodbaths and massacres, he
would behave modest and respectable. Unfortunately, the real life is quite
different than one would imagine and wish. They simply go with the
decadence, immorality and enjoy thoroughly the “luxurious” life in the West.
On the broadcasting channels Ishtar,
SuryoyoSat and SuroyoTv, sometimes wedding parties, new year, Christmas,
eastern and other parties are broadcasted where you see some people dressed
so perversely, that they look like prostitutes. They give the eyes the
impression as if they have something to sell! The obnoxious behavior is that
some of them wear a cross between their half-naked breasts. And the most
ungodly is that these kind of people are being associated with Christianity.
And that is absolutely no good advertisement, for other nations are watching
us and judge us according our behavior!
The worst thing is that from child
to adult they do not want to know anything about the errors and treason they
committed towards the Almighty God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and act as if
nothing is wrong. Many of them are even boasting on their good deeds,
Christian faith and self-satisfaction. What is worse is that many of them
have removed Christ Jesus from their lives, without being aware of it, and
call themselves "Christians" for the show.
Even now they are refugee at other
man’s doors, they do not have slightest reason to ask themselves: Why did we
become refugee at other man’s doors and make our hands open for them? Why
did not our God protect us against evil forces that have invaded and assumed
our indigenous homelands? What is the cause
of our Diaspora and why we lost everything? On the contrary, they enjoy the
“luxurious” life in the West, act like drunkards, and do not want to be
bothered with these difficult questions they simply don’t want to hear
The various Aramean Diaspora
communities (including “Chaldeans”, “Assyrians”) in the West should not fool
themselves and make any illusions for they have been entrapped by the
“luxurious” decadent life in the West. For their survival it is necessary to
wake up and reflect on what is coming. Thirty years ago nobody in Iraq would
have imagined in their wildest dreams what is now happening to them, for
they were entrapped in the carefree and “luxurious” life. Ten years ago
nobody had imagined what is now happening with Syria. Therefore we appeal to
all of the Aramean denominations as follows:
saith, Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the
dead, and Christ shall give thee light. 15 See then that ye
walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise"
For those among
you who want to learn more about centuries old persecutions, the lose of our
ancestral homelands, and the reasons behind Diaspora, we refer to the
measure the US has long used terrorism. In 1978-79 the Senate was
trying to pass a law against international terrorism- in every version they
produced, the lawyers said the US would be in violation “ (Former
National Security Agency Director Lt. General William Odom)
John Pilger: USA, UK and France gave birth to ISIS monster
French Foreighn Minister
Roland Dumas on the preplanned destruction of Syria
“ I’m going to tell you something. I was in England two years before
the violence in Syria on other business. I met with top British
officials, who confessed to me
that they were preparing something in Syria.
Britain was organizing an invasion of rebels into Syria.
They even asked me, although I was no longer minister for foreign
affairs, if I would like to participate.
Naturally, I refused, I said I’m French, that doesn’t interest me.’’
’This operation goes way back. It was prepared, preconceived and
in the region it is important to know that this Syrian regime has a
very anti-Israeli stance.
Consequently, everything that moves in the region- and I have this
from the former Israeli prime minister who told me ‘we’ll try to get
on with our neighbours but those who don’t agree with us
will be destroyed.
It’s a type of politics, a view of history, why not after all. But
one should know about it.’’
Revelation by former Iraqi Prime Minister Adel Abdul-Mahdi about blackmail,
threats, oppression and resignation
For the Arabic version, published on 6th of January 2020, please
click here. The English translation can be found
“[Speaker of the Council of Representatives of Iraq] Halbousi attended the
while almost none of the Sunni members did.
This was because the Americans had learned that Abdul-Mehdi was planning
to reveal sensitive secrets in the session
and sent Halbousi to prevent this.
Halbousi cut Abdul-Mehdi off
at the commencement of his speech and then asked for the
live airing of the session to be stopped.
After this, Halbousi together with other members, sat next to Abdul-Mehdi,
speaking openly with him but without it being recorded. This is what was
discussed in that session that was not broadcast:
Abdul-Mehdi spoke angrily about how the
Americans had ruined the country
refused to complete infrastructure and electricity grid projects unless they
were promised 50% of oil revenues,
which Abdul-Mehdi refused.”
Adel Abdul-Mahdi says:
“This is why I visited China and
signed an important agreement with them
to undertake the construction instead. Upon my return, Trump called me to
to reject this agreement.
When I refused, he
threatened to unleash huge demonstrations against me that would end my
Huge demonstrations against me duly materialized and Trump called again to
threaten that if I did not comply with his demands,
he would have Marine snipers on tall buildings target protesters and
alike in order to pressure me.
I refused again and handed in my resignation.
To this day the Americans insist on us rescinding our deal with the Chinese.
After this, when our Minister of Defense publicly stated that
a third party was targeting both protestors and security personnel alike
(just as Trump had threatened he would do), I received a new call from Trump
kill both me and the Minister of Defense
if we kept on talking about this “third party””
March 13, 2018, Russian
General Valery Gerasimov,
Chief of General Staff
“Today, we have reliable information
about militants preparing to falsify a government chemical attack
against civilians. In several districts of Eastern Ghouta,
a crowd was assembled with women, children and old people, brought
from other regions, who were to present the victims of the chemical
incident. “White Helmets” activists and
film crew are already in place at the scene with
satellite video transmitters. This has been confirmed by the
discovery of a laboratory for the production of chemical weapons in
the village of Aftris, which was liberated from the terrorists.
According to reports, after this provocation, the US plans to accuse Syrian government
troops of using chemical weapons,as well as provide the international community with so-called
“evidence” of mass civilian casualties, caused by the Syrian
government and the Russian government supporting it. In retaliation,
Washington plans to launch an airstrike on the government blocks of
Whistle blower Ian Anderson: Video message to the United Nations Security
Council meeting on January 20, 2020
The findings in the
final FFM [Fact Finding Mission] report
were contradictory, were a complete turnaround with what
the team had understood collectively during and after the Douma
And by the time of
release of interim report in July 2018, our understanding was that
we had serious misgivings that chemical
attack had occurred.
The report did not make
clear what new findings, facts, information, data or analysis in the
fields of witness testimony, toxicology studies, chemical analysis,
and engineering and/or ballistic studies [came to light], and
resulted in a complete turnaround
in the situation from what was understood
by the majority of the team and the entire Douma team in July 2018.
In my case I had
followed up with a further six months of engineering and ballistic
studies into the cylinders, the result of which had provided further
support for the view that there had not
been a chemical attack.